erschienen in der Publikation "Security Sector Expert Formation" (ISBN: 3-901328-86-6) - Mai 2003
INTRODUCTIONThe present study was conceptually prepared and implemented on a mandate of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs, together with three more stock-taking programmes on behalf of the Stability Pact Table III Quick Start Programme as bases for policy decision-making. The four studies, intended to supply decision-makers with analytical data on the status of select aspects of the security sector and security sector reform, will be published and made available for discussion in the first half of 2003.
These extensive programmes in SEE countries funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland on behalf of the Stability Pact and executed by DCAF reflect a profound concern with transparency-building, democratic oversight and reform of the security sector in the region. The programmes are: The South East Europe Documentation Network; The Stock-Taking Programme; The Transparency in Defense Procurements Programme; and The Needs Assessment in Expert Formation.
1. The South East Europe Documentation Network (SEEDON)Managed by DCAF in partnership with Tetracom (Sofia, Bulgaria) and ISN (Zurich, Switzerland), SEEDON (www.seedon.org) makes civilmilitary relations and security sector reform programmes in SEE countries accessible and transparent, supports the (emerging) security community in SEE and provides the international community with substantive SEE data via an eponymous website. SEEDON provides international practitioners and academic researchers in the field of civil-military relations and the democratic control of security sector with a network of regional and local partners and the possibility of on-line data access.
To do this, the network identifies governmental and non-governmental institutions working in the field of democratic control of the security sector, initiates documentation programmes on democratic control of the security sector based on publicly available data and makes the data publicly accessible, creates the possibility of training and instruction for all institutions and individuals who are part of the regional network, and equips them with the means to participate in on-line projects. SEEDON information is contained in its four services: the SEEDON Document Library; the SEEDON Links Library the SEEDON Events Calendar; and the SEEDON Events Calendar.
2. Security Sector Reform Stock-Taking Programme
On a mandate from the Stability Pact Table III on Security and the Swiss Ministry of Foreign Affairs, DCAF invited six South East European governments to participate in a four-part Stock-Taking Programme on Civil-Military Relations and Security Sector Reform during 2002. The aim of the programme was to further assist the democratic re-shaping of civil-military relations in the region and to create substantive and transparent mechanisms for the democratic and civilian control of the security sector.
The structured research programme had four elements: Expert Self-Assessment; Expert Workshop; Consolidation; and Publication. The findings of these six country studies will be published in book form in April 2003 and handed over to the Stability Pact for further discussion.
Given the considerable overlap in the research objectives of the
SEESTUDY and the present study, the DCAF Directorial Board was
delighted to make the findings available to the SEEGROUP in January 2003.
3. Transparency in Defense Procurements Programme
The purpose of the investigation is to gauge how open (or transparent) the conduct of military affairs are in eight SEE countries. The Transparency assessment seeks to establish data on existing and planned practices in SEE and to make them available in the SEEDON framework on the internet. The project is run by CESS/Groningen on a commission from DCAF.
The research produces a portfolio of Country Transparency Profiles (CTPs) which, after review, will be brought together and presented - with some comparative analysis - as a regional Transparency Audit Paper (TAP), incorporating a provisional ‘ranking’ of the eight states from this standpoint. The findings provide the basis for prescriptions about transparency-building: what needs to be done to improve matters, and how it might be done. Regarding the international dimension, information is sought particularly on arrangements for data-exchange on military outlays, budgets and spending intentions (including compliance with the OSCE’s reporting requirements).
4. Needs Assessment in Expert Formation
This programme seeks to establish demands and needs for future expert formation programmes in the security sector reform and democratic oversight of the security sector in SEE countries. Firstly, the project looks into and documents the actual supply of training and formation for both civilian and military experts in both fields. Secondly, the needs and demands for such formation as prescribed by official representatives in the region are documented. Thirdly, the efficiency of relevant training programmes for those needs and their impact on society is assessed.
Finally, recommendations for future training and formation programmes are formulated. The research was structured to rigorously elucidate the current extent and status of relevant knowledge bases, personnel, institutions, security sector practices.
The present study is the result of a fruitful cooperation between the Partnership for Peace Consortium Working Group on Security Sector Reform and DCAF. The editors would like to express their gratitude to the Working Group, and especially chairperson Anja Ebnöther who kindly provided an informational text on the Consortium (annex 4), and coordinator Marlene Urscheler who prepared and implemented the Consortium questionnaire/opinion poll and made the results available to 1 Questionnaires were distributed to all members of the PfP-Consortium. The purpose of this questionnaire was threefold. First, it provided an overview of existing programmes of security expert formation. Secondly, the survey tried to assess what was needed to guarantee effective democratic oversight of the security sector. The third step included us. DCAF research associate Stefan Imobersteg expertly summarised the texts. Eden Cole edited the texts and brought them into a print-ready format.
 Specific recommendations on the type training courses that should be offered to every group. Questionnaire findings will be available on the PfP website: http://www.pfpconsortium.org